Pain & CNS behavior CRO  
Inflammatory Pain in Mice
....and rats on demand.
Carrageenan-induced pain :
λ-carrageenan is a polysaccharide isolated from sea plants. Subcutaneous intraplantar injection of 2% λ-carrageenan into the hind paw of mouse produces inflammation and pain behaviors such as mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia. A peak is generally observed 6 hours after injection in the ipsilateral paw and continues for 24h at least. Mechanical threshold and/or thermal stimuli are proposed as readout of this model. 

CFA-induced pain :
Complete Freund’s Adjuvant is a solution of inactivated mycobacteria emulsified in mineral oil. Subcutaneous intraplantar injection of CFA into the hind paw of mouse generates inflammation with edema associated with thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia. Pain reaches its maximum one day after injection. It takes at least one week to return back to non-inflammed status. 

Formalin-induced pain :
Subcutaneaous injection of 2% formalin solution into hind paw induces a biphasic pain response. Pain behavior (shaking, licking or biting of the injected paw) is monitored for one hour. The Phase I (0-10 min) corresponds to direct activation of primary sensory neurons. The Phase II (10-60 min) is the result of central sensibilization of the system.

Chemical Pain in Mice
....other tests may also be implemented on demand....